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Dodge: Gustavus Adolphus 331 

the vagueness arises in part from the very nature of political conditions in 
Holland; powers were everywhere ill-defined, and thus some officials 
usurped powers and others neglected duties, but this makes only the more 
necessary a distinct and careful description of the government. The life 
of the Prince of Orange is drawn with a firm hand, but the political back- 
ground is confused and unsatisfactory. 

The biography as a whole is a valuable contribution to the history of 
a country too little studied by American scholars. 

It is unfortunate that a work so charmingly written should be disfigured 
by the constant use of the cleft infinitive, the invariable misplacement of 
the word "only," the occasional use of a singular subject with a plural 
verb, crude phrases such as "different — than," and a sentence like this: 
"The pistol was picked up and it was discovered that it had blown off 
Jaureguy's — such proved to be the name of the villain — thumb in the 
discharge " (II. 339). Han (I. 90, 91) is evidently a misprint for Ham. 
History has given the honorable title of "The Great Elector " to Frederick 
William of Brandenburg, not to Maurice of Saxony (II. 428). The genea- 
logical tables (I. 1; II. 433) are crowded as regards form, and therefore 
leave much to be desired. The work has but two maps, and both are 
unsatisfactory; the map of the Netherlands (II. 20) is confused in color- 
ing, while the map of the United Provinces fails to indicate what the seven 
provinces were. Other maps are needed, showing the location of Orange 
and the Nassau estates, as well as the territory affected by the various 
political unions formed. A copy of the famous painting of Miereveld 
in the royal museum at Amsterdam would have supplemented well the 
description of it given in the appendix, and would have been a valuable 
addition to the many admirable illustrations of the work. 

Lucy M. Salmon. 

Gustavus Adolphus : A History of the Art of War from its Revi- 
val after the Middle Ages to the End of the Spanish Succession 
War, with a detailed Account of the most famous Campaigns 
of Turenne, Condi, Eugene, and Marlborough. By Theodore 
Ayrault Dodge, Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel United States 
Army, retired list. (Boston and New York : Houghton, 
Mifflin and Company. 1895. Pp. xxiii, 864.) 

Every one interested in the study of the art of war is beholden to 
Colonel Dodge for the work that he is doing in setting forth the origin 
and development of that art in the form of a series of volumes devoted 
to the lives and achievements of its greatest masters. His work has a 
value which the separate appreciation of its component volumes would 
hardly represent. It is the first attempt to produce a convenient means 
of studying the art of war in the manner recommended by Napoleon, that 
of reading and rereading the campaigns of the world's great captains. 
The author takes from among the heroes of military history six epoch- 

332 Reviews of Books 

making representatives, three of whom belong to antiquity and three to 
modern times: Alexander, Hannibal, Caesar, Gustavus Adolphus, Fred- 
erick the Great, and Napoleon. Grouping about each one his principal 
contemporaries and such minor predecessors and successors as connect 
him with his dead and unborn peers, he devotes a separate volume to 
setting before the reader the several characters of each group in the 
light of the principal events of their careers. 

Like the other volumes of the series, the one before us is dedicated 
to "The American Soldier," and must be regarded as addressed, and 
especially suited, to the military reader, by which is meant any one, be 
he soldier or civilian, who reads for military information. If the object 
of the reader is political information, he had better look for it in such 
works as Gindely's and Gardiner's Tliirty Years' War, and the lives of 
Gustavus Adolphus by Leslie in English, by Parieu in French, and by 
Droysen in German. If it is romantic or blood- stirring sensation, he 
will find it in Schiller's brilliant but untrustworthy history of the Thirty 
Years' War. Colonel Dodge's book is a comprehensive history of the 
principal military changes and events which took place in Europe in 
consequence of the invention of printing, the introduction of gunpowder, 
and the Reformation. It comprises, beside the campaigns of the great 
Swede, and of his famous opponents Wallenstein and Tilly, those of 
Cromwell, Turenne, Conde, Marlborough, Prince Eugene, Charles XII., 
and other great generals. The author's analyses of characters and sum- 
ming up of records will be read with special interest and will generally, 
we believe, be approved. In placing Prince Eugene above Marlborough 
he but confirms the judgment of the most competent critics. The reader 
will find in the campaigns of Gustavus the earliest military operations 
conducted from a regular base, and in the counter-offensive of Wallen- 
stein, culminating in the battle of Llitzen, the first grand attempt against 
an enemy's communications, one in which the offensive, operating as 
Hood did in Sherman's rear, independently of a base, compelled the 
opposing army to fall back and fight its own Nashville. In the campaigns 
of Turenne he will see the wary feints and thrusts characterizing the 
earliest contests in which both opponents had communications to guard; 
and then, if he will turn to the chapter on Charles XII., he may behold a 
descendant of Gustavus, the originator of methodical warfare, plunging 
with a feeble army into the heart of an enemy's country, in apparent 
ignorance or disregard of any such thing as a base or line of communica- 

The success of every great soldier has been due more or less to his 
originating some method or implement of war, of which for a time he 
had a monopoly. This is pre-eminently the case with Gustavus Adolphus. 
Among the innovations which he is said to have originated or suggested 
are the paper cartridge, the cartridge-box, the bayonet, light artillery, 
fixed ammunition for artillery, or the artillery cartridge, the modern tac- 
tical unit, or the battalion, and the brigade. He laid the foundations of 

Dodge: Gustavus Adolphus 333 

modern military discipline, and was the first to provide an army with 
surgeons and chaplains. There is no other man whose name is associated 
with as many military improvements. Perhaps the one which is destined 
to endure the longest is that of the line of communication. Prior to his 
time armies had depots and magazines which might have been regarded 
as bases of operation, but in order to get supplies from them it was neces- 
sary to go to them, very much as a modern war vessel goes to a coaling 
station, or at the best to send to them. There was no regular system for 
forwarding supplies from them. Gustavus first showed the practicability 
of such a thing, and in so doing illustrated for the first time the impor- 
tance of what is now known as Military Geography. 

The author begins by briefly sketching the military history of the 
Middle Ages, and then describes the armament, organization, and tactics 
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Here the reader will perhaps 
be disappointed by the lack of information as to certain details, as to 
where Gustavus Adolphus devised or invented, and where he simply 
adopted and introduced, and as to the extent to which his innovations 
in the Swedish army were copied or anticipated in the armies with which 
he contended. The reader will learn that about 1626 he introduced the 
wheel-lock into his army, and may therefrom draw the erroneous conclu- 
sion that the wheel-lock was in general use in the Swedish army during 
the subsequent wars of Gustavus. He is left in the dark as to whether 
the Germans or Poles had wheel-locks, and is given no adequate idea of 
what a wheel-lock is or in what respects and to what extent it had the 
advantage over the match-lock. He is not told the range either of the 
small arms or of the artillery. 

Most of the book is taken up with military operations. One cannot 
read them without being impressed with the author's familiarity with his 
subject and with the soundness of his military judgments and criticisms. 
But the average reader will find it hard to fix his mind upon them. He 
will lay the book down at frequent intervals, or read but a little at a time. 
Colonel Dodge has a style of writing which may be characterized as free 
and easy, and which, it need hardly be added, lacks the conciseness essen- 
tial to good military narration. He is not careful to state the military 
problem and the means available for solving it, before taking up the solu- 
tion of it, and to give an idea of the purpose or object of a movement as 
he describes it. He omits political details which are properly a part of 
the military history of the Thirty Years' War, and essential to the lessons 
to be learned from it. 

Gustavus Adolphus entered Germany with a field army numbering about 
13,000 men, at a time when the forces under Tilly and Wallenstein num- 
bered about 100,000. He counted on re-enforcements, which soon came 
to him, from home and from friendly states, but like Alexander in Asia, 
and Hannibal in Europe, he relied largely for recruits upon the enemy's 
country. The main or general idea of his successive campaigns was to 
arouse the disaffected elements in the German Empire and attach them 

334 Reviews of Books 

to his cause. There were two feelings or passions for him to work upon, 
the religious and the political; and two means of working upon them, 
persuasion and force. Much, if not most, of the interest of the Thirty 
Years' War, and of its value as a military study, lies in the political oper- 
ations conducted by and with these agencies. As an exposition of the 
state of the art of war, the book would be more instructive if fewer cam- 
paigns were discussed, and these gone into more deeply; especially, if 
more attention were paid to the arrangements on Gustavus' lines of com- 
munication, which, together with his political power, would seem to be 
the great secret of his invincibility. The battles are very well described, 
the numbers, dispositions, movements, and results being clearly, and per- 
haps without exception correctly, set forth. Colonel Dodge asserts that 
at the battle of Breitenfeld the Imperialists were drawn up in a single 
line. "Only the Italian author Gualdo," he says, "speaks of two lines; 
other accounts mention no second line." On page 52 of the Precis des 
Campagnes de Gustave Adolphe en Allemagne (Bibliotheque Internationale) 
we find the following statement: "Most of the plans of the battle of 
Breitenfeld represent the Imperialists in a single line; according to 
Colonel Stammfort, this error — which Lossan (Ideale der Kriegsfiihrung) 
calls an absurdity — results from the fact that these plans were made by 
the Swedes, who could but imperfectly observe the positions of their 
adversaries during the action." 

As one takes up this book for the first time, and observes the numer- 
ous maps scattered through it, and the large map at the end, one thinks, 
or ventures to hope, that it is one of those rare gems of military bibli- 
ography, a history that can be read without the aid of an atlas. But expe- 
rience soon brings one to a different state of mind. The maps in the text 
are mostly patches of the large map at the end of the book, and on a 
smaller scale than the latter. If they were on a larger scale, or showed 
the positions of troops or lines of march, they would serve a useful pur- 
pose. As it is, they are worse than useless, for they distract the atten- 
tion of the reader from the better map. The large map does not, when 
unfolded, come outside of the book. A part of it cannot be seen with- 
out turning back the leaves. The reader would do well to cut it out 
before undertaking to use it. Its general excellence is marred by a few 
errors and omissions. Freiberg is shown as Freiburg. The points Cas- 
tellaun, Giessen, Frankenthal, Marbach, Langendenzlingen, referred to in 
the text, are not shown on it. The map on page 104 shows Naumburg 
as Naumberg. On page 371 Wittenberg is referred to as Wittenburg; 
and on page 365, Freiberg as Freiburg. The maps of battles and sieges 
give the positions of troops in a satisfactory manner, but do not in 
alt. cases show the scale. That the maps of campaigns do not indicate 
positions of troops or lines of march is especially to be regretted, as 
the author, in referring to particular points, many of which the reader 
will never have heard of, does not give the state or province in which 
they are located. 

Hassall: Louis XIV 335 

The body of the work numbers 850 pages, forming sixty-five chapters. 
The apprehension expressed by the author that the volume errs in being 
bulky will be a conviction in the mind of the reader. This fault might 
have been palliated in a measure by the subdivision of the work into parts. 
One of the divisions should in this case have fallen upon the death of 
Gustavus, who dies about the middle of the book. The reader will wish 
that the numbers of troops were given in figures instead of in words. 
At the end will be found a list of notable marches of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries, of battles in the same period, with percentages 
of losses, a list of dates, and an exhaustive index. This book contains a 
great deal of military information that cannot be found in any other 
single one, or perhaps in any number of books short of a fair-sized library. 
It is a valuable work of reference on the revival of the art of war after the 
Middle Ages, and as such is heartily commended to all who are interested 
in that subject. 

John Bigelow, jr. 

Louis XIV. and the Zenith of the French Monarchy. By Arthur 
Hassall, M.A., Student of Christ Church, Oxford. (New 
York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1895 Pp. xvi, 444.) 

Mr. Hassall is right in claiming for Louis XIV. a place among national 
heroes. Notwithstanding his mediocre intellect, and his overweening van- 
ity, the narrowness of his religious beliefs and the errors of his policy, the 
monarch who played so great a part in his day has taken his place among 
the famous men of history. With all his weaknesses, there was in Louis 
XIV. much that can rightly be called great ; of no man could it be more 
truly said that he was every inch a king ; to the duties of his great office 
he devoted a conscientious and life-long attention ; if he enjoyed the 
pomp of place he did not shirk the responsibilities ; there was a dignity 
to his character of which his dignity of manner was the fitting expression ; 
tenacious of his own position, he was mindful of the rights of inferiors ; 
amidst a bustling world he bore himself with a certain empyrean calm ; he 
met adversity with fortitude ; he exerted a great and permanent influence 
on the age in which he lived and the people over whom he ruled. 

Of the long reign which filled three-quarters of a century, Mr. Hassall 
has given an eminently fair and just review. There is little new to be said 
of the events of that period, but it is easy to fall into excessive laudation 
of the king, and still more easy to belittle his character. Louis XIV. has 
suffered alike from undeserved flattery and from indiscriminate abuse. If 
historians of his own day constantly proclaimed him the greatest of kings 
and of men, modern writers have gone as far wrong in announcing that 
the great monarch was in reality only an exceptionally ignorant and stupid 
man, governed in turn by an unscrupulous minister, a designing priest, and 
a bigoted old woman. Mr. Hassall has avoided these extremes and has 
given a just estimate of an extraordinary character.